Mycotoxin Removal and Testing in Florida

We offer expert Mycotoxin Removal and Testing in Florida. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites (Natural  compounds produced by mold) produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans an animals. Mycotoxicosis is a disease caused by mycotoxins and are examples of poisoning by natural means, poisoning due to a fungal or bacterial toxin, poisoning due to ingestion of toxic fungi, poisoning due to the skin contact with mold-infested substrates and poisoning due to inhalation of spore-borne toxins.

The symptoms of a mycotoxicosis depends on the type of mycotoxin, the amount and duration of the exposure, the age, health, and sex of the exposed individual. Genetics, dietary status, and interactions with other toxic exposures can heighten vulnerability to microbial diseases, worsen the effects of malnutrition, and interact synergistically with other toxins. Fungal diseases is a serious international problem.

Mycotoxins are related in a variety of building-related disease conditions. Associated with dirty air conditioning vents, the dust dislodged during renovations, and the aftermath of water damage to interiors, molds in indoor environments have been implicated in allergies for many years. Many occupants of tight new buildings exhibit adverse health effects that are relieved when they leave the building. The most prevalent symptoms are irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, headaches and fatigue, skin irritation, nonspecific hypersensitive reaction, and peculiar odor and taste.

Among the suspected etiological agents of sick building syndrome are poor ventilation, office and cleaning supplies, and different forms of microbial contamination. Respiratory exposure is thought to be related to inhalation of mold spores, hypal fragments, and contaminated dusts. It is know that spores in air-borne dust can cause ochratoxin exposure. Human residents complained of increased thirst, edema, skin rash and general lethargy.

The main human and veterinary health burden of mycotoxin exposure is related to chronic exposure (e.g, cancer, induction, kidney toxicity and immune suppression.

The effects of pulmonary exposure to substances produced by fungi are discussed. Topics included: toxic volatile compounds of fungi, the occurrence of aflatoxin (1402682) in workplace aerosols, the occurrence of mycotoxins in fungal spores, the effects of mycotoxins in the lung, and the needs of future research. Fungi known to cause respiratory problems upon inhalation were reviewed along with the volatile agents they produce; many of the latter were associated with high 50% lethal doses but some had significant toxic effects.

List of some Mycotoxins


The aflatoxins were isolated and characterized after the death of more than 100,00 turkeys was traced to the consumption of a mold contaminated peanut meal. The four major aflatoxins are called B1, B2,G1 and G2. Aflatoxin are derivatives produced by many strains of Aspergillus mold. Acute aflatoxicosis results in death, chronic aflatoxicosis results in cancer, immune suppression and the liver is a primary target. Aflatox reputation has a potent poison may explain why it has been adopted for use in bioterrorism. Aflatoxin is a human carcinogen and people with compromised immune systems and hepatitis B need to be especially cautious to protect exposure.


are produced by Stachybotrys, Fusarium, Trichoderma and others, consumption of these mycotoxins can result in alimentary hemoorrage and vomting, direct conat causes dermatitis. Stachybotrys grows on all sorts of wet building materials with high cellulose content, gypsum board, ceiling tiles, wood fiber boards, and dust lines air conditioning ducts. This is where the term sick building syndrome is related.


is a mycotoxin that comes in three secondary metabolite forms, A, B, and C. All are produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species. The three forms differ in that Ochratoxin B (OTB) is a nonchlorinated form of Ochratoxin A (OTA) and that Ochratoxin C (OTC) is an ethyl ester form Ochratoxin A.Aspergillus ochraceus is found as a contaminant of a wide range of commodities including beverages such as beer and wine. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main species found on vine fruit, which releases its toxin during the juice making process.OTA has been labeled as a carcinogen and a nephrotoxin, and has been linked to tumors in the human urinary tract, although research in humans is limited by confounding factors.


is a toxin that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, but has been identified in over a dozen species of Penicillium and several species of Aspergillus. Some of these species are used to produce human foodstuffs such as cheese (Penicillium camemberti), sake, miso, and soy sauce (Aspergillus oryzae). Citrinin is associated with yellowed rice disease in Japan and acts as a nephrotoxin in all animal species tested.Although it is associated with many human foods (wheat, rice, corn, barley, oats, rye, and food colored with Monascus pigment) its full significance for human health is unknown. Citrinin can also act synergistically with Ochratoxin A to depress RNA synthesis in murine kidneys.

Ergot Alkaloids

are compounds produced as a toxic mixture of alkaloids in the sclerotia of species of Claviceps, which are common pathogens of various grass species. The ingestion of ergot sclerotia from infected cereals, commonly in the form of bread produced from contaminated flour, causes ergotism, the human disease historically known as St. Anthony’s Fire. There are two forms of ergotism: gangrenous, affecting blood supply to extremities, and convulsive, affecting the central nervous system. Modern methods of grain cleaning have significantly reduced ergotism as a human disease; however, it is still an important veterinary problem. Ergot alkaloids have been used pharmaceutically.
Patulin is a toxin produced by the P. expansum, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Paecilomyces fungal species. P. expansum is especially associated with a range of moldy fruits and vegetables, in particular rotting apples and figs.[16][17] It is destroyed by the fermentation process and so is not found in apple beverages, such as cider. Although patulin has not been shown to be carcinogenic, it has been reported to damage the immune system in animals.[16] In 2004, the European Community set limits to the concentrations of patulin in food products. They currently stand at 50 μg/kg in all fruit juice concentrations, at 25 μg/kg in solid apple products used for direct consumption, and at 10 μg/kg for children’s apple products, including apple juice.


toxins are produced by over 50 species of Fusarium and have a history of infecting the grain of developing cereals such as wheat and maize.They include a range of mycotoxins, such as: the fumonisins, which affect the nervous systems of horses and may cause cancer in rodents; the trichothecenes, which are most strongly associated with chronic and fatal toxic effects in animals and humans; and zearalenone, which is not correlated to any fatal toxic effects in animals or humans. Some of the other major types of Fusarium toxins include: beauvercin and enniatins, butenolide, equisetin, and fusarins.


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